About 96% of male newborns have phimosis. Adhesions between the prepuce and the glans do not allow preputial retraction and exposure of the glans. We call that physiologic phimosis. The adhesions will clear up spontaneously during the first infancy.
Usually, it is not painful when the bowel is able to enter and leave the hernial sac. But, especially in small infants, the sudden appearance of a painful bulge in the groin can be the first presentation of inguinal hernia. This means that the hernia becomes irreducible and the bowel gets stuck in the sac.
During the 3rd month of gestation, the testis begins its descent from a retroperitoneal location, through the inguinal canal until the scrotum. An extension of the peritoneum - a transparent membrane which lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs
We call cryptorchidism when we can’t find the testicle in the scrotum. It is the result of a incomplete descent of the testicle from the abdomen until the scrotum during fetal life. Formed in the abdomen, the testicle follows a pathway through the groin and into the scrotum during the last weeks of gestation.