Phimosis is a narrowing of the tip of the foreskin that does not allow the exposure of the glans.
It can be congenital, but in older boys, it is most often secondary to local infections or traumatic preputial retractions that left a fibrous scar.
Yes. About 96% of male newborns have phimosis. Adhesions between the prepuce and the glans do not allow preputial retraction and exposure of the glans. We call that physiologic phimosis. The adhesions will clear up spontaneously during the first infancy.
It can be a partial resection of the foreskin (resection of the phimotic ring) or total resection of the foreskin (circumcision). In some cases, it can be performed a plasty of the stenotic ring without foreskin resection.
During the first year of life, the absolute risk of non-circumcised male infants to develop urinary tract infection is exceptionally low (less than 1%). This does not justify routine circumcision due to medical reasons.